Kujiu 苦蝤 was a leader among the Black Mountain Bandits. Kujiu is a nickname, meaning “Dry Grub”. His first and only mention comes in 184, when the Black Mountain Bandits were formed around the time of the Yellow Turban Rebellion.

While many of his fellow bandits were killed by Yuan Shao 袁紹 in 193 in several skirmishes, Kujiu is not mentioned in these.


  • His name is written as 苦唒 (Kuqiu) in History of the Later Han.
  • Based on the nickname, this man was probably clean shaven and bald.


  • Chen Shou 陳壽 (233–297). Sanguo zhi 三國志 “Records of the Three Kingdoms”, with official commentary compiled by Pei Songzhi 裴松之 (372-451).
  • Fan Ye 范曄 (398–445). Hou Han shu 後漢書 “History of the Later Han”.